Difference between revisions of "Personal Genome Project"

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<a href="http://www.personalgenomes.org/">http://www.personalgenomes.org/</a><br />
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<p>The <font color="#000000"><strong>Personal Genome Project</strong> (PGP) aims to publish the complete genomes and medical records of several volunteers, in order to enable research into </font><font color="#000000">personalized medicine</font><font color="#000000">. It was initiated by </font><font color="#000000">Harvard University</font><font color="#000000">'s </font><font color="#000000">George Church</font><font color="#000000"> and announced in January 2006.<sup id="cite_ref-0" class="reference"><font size="2"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></font></sup><sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><font size="2"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></font></sup></font></p>
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<p><font color="#000000">The project will publish the </font><font color="#000000">genotype</font><font color="#000000"> (the full </font><font color="#000000">DNA sequence</font><font color="#000000"> of all 46 </font><font color="#000000">chromosomes</font><font color="#000000">) of the volunteers, along with extensive information about their </font><font color="#000000">phenotype</font><font color="#000000">: medical records, various measurements, </font><font color="#000000">MRI</font><font color="#000000"> images, etc. All data will be freely available over the </font><font color="#000000">Internet</font><font color="#000000">, so that researchers can test various hypotheses about the relationships among </font><font color="#000000">genotype</font><font color="#000000">, </font><font color="#000000">environment</font><font color="#000000"> and </font><font color="#000000">phenotype</font><font color="#000000">.</font></p>
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<p><font color="#000000">All data will be published along with the volunteer's name (since full anonymity can never be guaranteed anyway). An important part of the project will be the exploration of the resulting risks to the participants, such as possible discrimination by insurers and employers if the genome shows a predisposition for certain diseases.</font></p>
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<p><font color="#000000">The Harvard Medical School </font><font color="#000000">Institutional Review Board</font><font color="#000000"> requested that the first set of volunteers included the PGP director and other diverse stakeholders in the scientific, medical, and social implications of personal genomes, because they are well positioned to give highly </font><font color="#000000">informed consent</font><font color="#000000">. As </font><font color="#000000">sequencing technology</font><font color="#000000"> becomes cheaper, and the societal issues mentioned above are worked out, it is hoped that a large number of volunteers from all walks of life will participate. The long-term goal is that every person have access to his or her </font><font color="#000000">genotype</font><font color="#000000"> to be used for personalized medical decisions.</font></p>
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<p><font color="#000000">The first ten volunteers are referred to as the &quot;PGP-10&quot;. These volunteers are:</font></p>
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<ol>
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    <li><font color="#000000">Misha Angrist, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy <sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><font size="2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></font></sup></font></li>
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    <li><font color="#000000">Keith Batchelder, Genomic Healthcare Strategies </font><font color="#000000">[1]</font></li>
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    <li><font color="#000000">George Church</font><font color="#000000">, Harvard</font></li>
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    <li><font color="#000000">Esther Dyson</font><font color="#000000">, EDventure Holdings</font></li>
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    <li><font color="#000000">Rosalynn Gill-Garrison, Sciona </font><font color="#000000">[2]</font></li>
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    <li><font color="#000000">John Halamka, Harvard Medical School </font><font color="#000000">[3]</font></li>
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    <li><font color="#000000">Stan Lapidus, Helicos BioSciences </font><font color="#000000">[4]</font></li>
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    <li><font color="#000000">Kirk Maxey</font><font color="#000000">, Cayman Chemical </font><font color="#000000">[5]</font></li>
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    <li><font color="#000000">James Sherley</font><font color="#000000">, Boston stem cell researcher.</font></li>
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    <li><font color="#000000">Steven Pinker</font><font color="#000000">, Harvard</font></li>
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</ol>
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<p><font color="#000000">In an interview in December 2007, Church stated that the sequencing effort for the above individuals had started and that the participants would get a chance to redact their trait data before publication. He also announced that the project was about to expand considerably and would recruit 100,000 volunteers in 2008; these would have to pass a test before they can participate, to ensure that they are able to give fully </font><font color="#000000">informed consent</font><font color="#000000">.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><font size="2"><span>[</span>4<span>]</span></font></sup></font></p>
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<p><font color="#000000" size="2"></font></p>
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<h2><span class="mw-headline"><font color="#000000">See also</font></span></h2>
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<ul>
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    <li><font color="#000000">Human Genome Project</font></li>
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</ul>
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<p><font color="#000000"></font></p>
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<h2><span class="mw-headline"><font color="#000000">References</font></span></h2>
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<div class="references-small">
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<ol class="references">
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    <li id="cite_note-0"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-0"><font color="#0066cc">^</font></a></strong> Emily Singer. <a class="external text" title="http://www.technologyreview.com/BioTech-Therapeutics/wtr_16169,259,p1.html" href="http://www.technologyreview.com/BioTech-Therapeutics/wtr_16169,259,p1.html" rel="nofollow"><font color="#0066cc">The Personal Genome Project</font></a>, <em><a title="Technology Review" href="/wiki/Technology_Review"><font color="#0066cc">Technology Review</font></a></em>, 20 January 2006</li>
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    <li id="cite_note-1"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-1"><font color="#0066cc">^</font></a></strong> George Church. <a class="external text" title="http://arep.med.harvard.edu/pdf/Church05s.pdf" href="http://arep.med.harvard.edu/pdf/Church05s.pdf" rel="nofollow"><font color="#0066cc">Genomes for All</font></a>, <em><a title="Scientific American" href="/wiki/Scientific_American"><font color="#0066cc">Scientific American</font></a></em>, January 2006</li>
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    <li id="cite_note-2"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-2"><font color="#0066cc">^</font></a></strong> Misha Angrist, Robert M. Cook-Deegan <a class="external text" title="http://www.thenewatlantis.com/archive/11/angristcook-deegan.htm" href="http://www.thenewatlantis.com/archive/11/angristcook-deegan.htm" rel="nofollow"><font color="#0066cc">Who Owns the Genome?</font></a> The New Atlantis, Number 11, Winter 2006, pp. 87-96.</li>
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    <li id="cite_note-3"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-3"><font color="#0066cc">^</font></a></strong> Emily Singer. <a class="external text" title="http://www.technologyreview.com/Biotech/19824/" href="http://www.technologyreview.com/Biotech/19824/" rel="nofollow"><font color="#0066cc">Your Personal Genome</font></a>, <em>Technology Review</em>, 6 December 2007</li>
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</ol>
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</div>
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<p><a id="External_links" name="External_links"></a></p>
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<h2><span class="mw-headline">External links</span></h2>
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<ul>
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    <li><a class="external text" title="http://www.personalgenomes.org" href="http://www.personalgenomes.org" rel="nofollow"><font color="#0066cc">PGP home page</font></a></li>
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    <li><a class="external text" title="http://www.dailycamera.com/news/2008/oct/21/boulder-woman-bares-her-genes/" href="http://www.dailycamera.com/news/2008/oct/21/boulder-woman-bares-her-genes/" rel="nofollow"><font color="#0066cc">Rosalynn Gill</font></a></li>
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    <li><a class="external text" title="http://www.wired.com/medtech/stemcells/magazine/16-08/ff_church" href="http://www.wired.com/medtech/stemcells/magazine/16-08/ff_church" rel="nofollow"><font color="#0066cc">Wired:How the Personal Genome Project Could Unlock the Mysteries of Life</font></a><br />
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    </li>
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</ul>

Revision as of 16:19, 23 July 2009

The Personal Genome Project (PGP) aims to publish the complete genomes and medical records of several volunteers, in order to enable research into personalized medicine. It was initiated by Harvard University's George Church and announced in January 2006.[1][2]

The project will publish the genotype (the full DNA sequence of all 46 chromosomes) of the volunteers, along with extensive information about their phenotype: medical records, various measurements, MRI images, etc. All data will be freely available over the Internet, so that researchers can test various hypotheses about the relationships among genotype, environment and phenotype.

All data will be published along with the volunteer's name (since full anonymity can never be guaranteed anyway). An important part of the project will be the exploration of the resulting risks to the participants, such as possible discrimination by insurers and employers if the genome shows a predisposition for certain diseases.

The Harvard Medical School Institutional Review Board requested that the first set of volunteers included the PGP director and other diverse stakeholders in the scientific, medical, and social implications of personal genomes, because they are well positioned to give highly informed consent. As sequencing technology becomes cheaper, and the societal issues mentioned above are worked out, it is hoped that a large number of volunteers from all walks of life will participate. The long-term goal is that every person have access to his or her genotype to be used for personalized medical decisions.

The first ten volunteers are referred to as the "PGP-10". These volunteers are:

  1. Misha Angrist, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy [3]
  2. Keith Batchelder, Genomic Healthcare Strategies [1]
  3. George Church, Harvard
  4. Esther Dyson, EDventure Holdings
  5. Rosalynn Gill-Garrison, Sciona [2]
  6. John Halamka, Harvard Medical School [3]
  7. Stan Lapidus, Helicos BioSciences [4]
  8. Kirk Maxey, Cayman Chemical [5]
  9. James Sherley, Boston stem cell researcher.
  10. Steven Pinker, Harvard

In an interview in December 2007, Church stated that the sequencing effort for the above individuals had started and that the participants would get a chance to redact their trait data before publication. He also announced that the project was about to expand considerably and would recruit 100,000 volunteers in 2008; these would have to pass a test before they can participate, to ensure that they are able to give fully informed consent.[4]

See also

  • Human Genome Project

References

  1. ^ Emily Singer. The Personal Genome Project, Technology Review, 20 January 2006
  2. ^ George Church. Genomes for All, Scientific American, January 2006
  3. ^ Misha Angrist, Robert M. Cook-Deegan Who Owns the Genome? The New Atlantis, Number 11, Winter 2006, pp. 87-96.
  4. ^ Emily Singer. Your Personal Genome, Technology Review, 6 December 2007

External links